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Anatomy and physiology of male
The testes are two glandular organs, which secrete the semen; they are suspended in the scrotum by the spermatic cords. Testes are suspended outside the abdominal cavity in the scrotum,
In ayurveda Acharya Sushruta , while explaining the anatomy of testis has said " Maamsa asruk kapha medaha prasaadaadwavrushanaha" which means The two testes are made up of muscles, blood , fat and their derivatives.
The Scrotum is a cutaneous pouch which contains the testes and parts of the spermatic cords (The spermatic cord is composed of arteries, veins, lymphatics, nerves, and the excretory duct of the testis. These structures are connected together by areolar tissue,). It is divided on its surface into two lateral portions by a ridge or raphé. (Sushruta explains raphe' as "seevani" or a stitch like ridge. He has cautioned not to injure it with surgical instruments )Of these two lateral portions the left hangs lower than the right, to correspond with the greater length of the left spermatic cord. The Testes (two egg-shaped structures) remain in the Scrotum, outside the body, where the temperature is about 3 degrees C Cooler than the body internal temperature (27 degrees C. Sperm development in the Testes Requires the Lower Temperature.)
The testis is composed primarily of seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells.
Seminiferous tubules are packed closely together. There are approximately 500 tubules in each testis. The cells within the seminiferous tubules are germ cells an sertoli cells.The germ cells mature into spermatozoa or sperms. The Sertoli cells serve as supporting cells for developing germ cells.
Leydig cells are very important cells that are present in the interstitial space outside the seminiferous tubule. These cells produce testosterone which stimulate the germ cell maturation.
The complex process involved in production of sperms from germ cells is known as spermatogenesis.
Spermatozoa or sperms are first produced at puberty
and spermatogenic activity is maintained into old age. Millions of sperms are
produced each day.
The mature sperms are released into the lumen of seminiferous tubule. The sperms pass into epididymis. (Lying upon the lateral edge of this posterior border is a long, narrow, fiattened body, named the epididymis.), The canal of the epididymis is continued into the vasdeferens which rise up over the brim of the pelvis and passes down to the prostate gland at the base of the urinary bladder. It joins the seminal vesicles to form the ejaculatory ducts. Epididymis serves as sperm conduit and sperm reservoir where sperm acquire motility and fertilizing capacity.
Just prior to ejaculation, the testes are brought
close to the abdomen and fluid is rapidly transported through the vas deferens
to the ejaculatory duct and subsequently into the urethra.(The urethra passes
through the penis and opens to the outside.)
Males begin to produce Sperm during Puberty. At this time, the male hormone
(Androgen) testosterone produced by testes, stimulate the sperm production.
The pituitary gland releases FSH (follicle – stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone). These hormones stimulate the testes to make Testosterone , the male sex hormone.
The whole male body responds to testosterone. Hence sushruta has said
"yatha payasi sarpistu goodashchekshow raso yatha shareereshu tatha shukram nrinaam vidyaadhbishagwara" This means " the shukra ( the element which helps in reproduction) is present all over the body .
This can be explained with the following examples.
The ghee is present in milk in an invisible form. This is extracted from milk using many processes.
The sugar is present all over the sugarcane. It is extracted by subjecting the sugarcane to number of processes.
Same way shukra is present all over the body. But the cream of shukra (semen) comes out of the body only during the process of ejaculation. But this process of ejaculation needs a joyful union of mind and body.
Hence the ayurveda therapy to increase libido, semen and erection involves a step which rejuvenates and nourishes the whole body and mind.
The testosterone produces secondary sexual characteristics in male like deep voice, beard, body hair etc.
The FSH and testosterone stimulate the sperm production and development.